Waterproofing describes objects which are relatively unaffected by water under specified conditions. It is the formation of an impervious barrier which is designed to prevent water entering or escaping from various sections of building structure. In building construction, waterproofing is a fundamental aspect of creating a building envelope, which is a controlled environment. The penetration through roofs or terraces, exterior and interior foundations, basements, swimming pools etc. needs to be water resistant or waterproof.
It is essential to waterproof a structure to prevent the seepage of water for its durability. We deal with several ways of waterproofing depending on a structure, site and conditions. The following are some methods of waterproofing, we deal with:
Interior and exterior areas of building must be kept dry from rood to basement. Water infiltration can lead to worst damages causing building construction failures. Waterproofing reduces humidity and protects the building from damage dampness and water exposure.
Areas of building required to be waterproofed are explained below:
Roof is the covering of the top of a building, serving to protect against rain, snow, sunlight, wind, and extremes of temperature. Roofs have been constructed in a wide variety of forms—flat, pitched, vaulted, domed, or in combinations—as dictated by technical, economic, or aesthetic considerations.Terrace is usually referred to flat or leveled area which is projected from a building. Roof/terrace arethe most crucial segment of building, as they are exposed to direct climatic variations and structural movements caused thereby.So every effort should be taken at the initial stage itself to ensure that a proper protection system has been incorporated.
. Due, to the flat/elevated/leveled surface of a roof/terrace, a lot of tricky problem appears in building constructions. This generally leads to accumulation of water on the surface resulting in water leakage through roof/terrace. Concrete is known to be inherently weak in tension; cracks and voids can also form due to thermal expansion, contraction and shrinkage. As a result, water will seep through these voids. Therefore, waterproofing is required to keep the roof/terrace water tight.We at Akamai Waterproofing Solutions provide you with best possible means which ensures that water is carried away from the building without causing any leakages or seepages through the roof/terrace.
Waterproofing for basement is very necessary as this is the basic foundation of a building. If basement has some water leakage problem, it will lead to damage of the whole structure. Basement waterproofing is a technique used to prevent water from penetrating the basement of the building. Waterproofing and drainage consideration are especially important in the conditions mentioned below:
• Concrete cracks: Cracks in a concrete foundation or masonry compromises the structure ability to provide a barrier to water or moisture entry.
• Hydrostatic pressure: Hydrostatic Pressure is a condition where the ground water is likely to build up in the soil and raise the water table. Hydrostatic pressure can cause major structural damage to foundation walls, and is likely to contribute in moisture related problems.
• Capillary action: The movement of liquid moisture through a structure or concrete using voids and fissures in the material acting as a path for water travel.
• Vapour Transmission: The movement of air borne moisture through a structure or concrete due to the airborne moisture concentration and temperature conditions being ideal for water or moisture to form.
• Condensation: The formation of liquid moisture on or within a structure or concrete due to the airborne moisture concentration and temperature conditions being ideal for water or moisture to form.
There are many solutions available for keeping moisture and water out of the basement. By repairing cracks and holes in the foundation through waterproofing treatment and techniques, can reduce the pathway of water. Sealing a building properly will stop the water ingress and would prevent the structure from further damage. Some commonly used methods for basement waterproofing are injection grouting, chemical and liquid coat waterproofing, HDPE membrane etc.
Elevator pits normally extend below the ground level and therefore like basements they are susceptible to water ingress under hydrostatic pressure and a lot of conditions. The waterproofing techniques and methods of elevator pit are same as basement.
Sunken portions are generally found in toilets, bathrooms and washing places. The purpose of having a sunken slab is to conceal all the pipes below the floor. Since the pipes that carry water are concealed below the floor, care has to be taken to avoid leakage problem. There are various type of methods of waterproofing used in a sunken area and the most commonly used are injection grouting, liquid and chemical based waterproofing coats &preformed membrane method.
During the construction of any water retaining structures as swimming pool, water reservoirs, tanks etc. it is essential to ensure water tightness of the structures so that the flow of water from inside to outside and infiltration of water from surrounding soil into the structure are effectively prevented. Concrete walls are not sufficient to ensure a full waterproofing and avoid leakage of any other retaining structures. A full waterproofing system should be applied before putting it on service. The waterproofing solutions mainly comprises of repairing the honey combing areas, damaged concrete, joints treatment, waterproofing on interior wall/exterior wall and floor of the structures.
Waterproofing is a very important aspect when a toilet/bathroom is built. As water is always present in bathroom and toilets, it is advisable to have a proper waterproofing there. A proper waterproofing would save an individual for any inconvenience in the future due to leakage.
Liquid acrylic water based waterproofing treatment, cementitious based waterproofing are usually used for toilets and bathroom water proofing.
External Walls : A high performance waterproofing method is required to prevent seepage of water from external walls to the interior walls of a building. When the external walls are exposed to a water source such as rain, this water can enter into masonry structures. This results in the water travelling laterally from external to internal walls.
Exterior walls are the largest surface areas exposed to weather conditions such as rain, dust, UV rays, fungus etc. Therefore non permeability or water tightness is the major requirement for external walls of a building structure. This could be achieved through providing adequate wall thickness, waterproofing, proper design of construction joints, surface rendering and finishes, which serve as barrier against water ingress.
Internal Walls : When moisture infiltrates the interior walls of a building structure, it can cause mould, mildew, cracking or even structural damage. Moisture most commonly impact the interior walls through basements as ground water can seep through small openings in concrete basement foundations.
Injection waterproofing is a process of filling the cracks, open joints, voids, or honeycombs, in concrete or masonry structural members, under pressure with a material that cures in place to produce the desired results like strengthening a structure and prevent water movement.
Grout is a flowable material and should have negligible shrinkage to fill the gap or voids completely and should remain stable without cracking, de-lamination or crumbling. There are different types of grouts such as cement grout, polymer-cement slurry, epoxy& polyurethane. These grout materials are selected for particular type of concrete or masonry repair work based on the compatibility of the grout with the surface. Proper grouting material should be selectedtoachieve desired objectives.